The British, United States and several other governments were unable to prevent their citizens fighting for Rhodesia due to difficulties enforcing the relevant laws. Product prices mentioned in articles and videos are current as of the date of publication. [62] The revelations about Lamb's history embarrassed the Army and led to concerns in Rhodesia about the quality of the foreign volunteers. Its a port city in southern Mozambique where it can be hot with humidity over 80 percent. [62] Those who failed this training had to leave the country, with their airfare home being paid by the Rhodesian government. Seeing that the guerrilla was still advancing, Rousseau made an attempt at a head shot that hit the guerrilla through the base of his neck, severing the spinal cord. Until the early 1970s the Rhodesian Security Forces had little difficulty in defeating the guerrillas. Due to the sanctions against Rhodesia, these ads were generally lodged via front organisations and were vague about the country the volunteers would serve in. [83] Various approaches were considered to develop legislation to ban recruitment by the Rhodesian Security Forces during the late 1970s, but none eventuated. This unit performed poorly and committed atrocities that included raping women during operations. [104], Few works by historians have been published on the volunteers who served with the Rhodesian Security Forces. [38], Most of the foreigners who volunteered to fight for Rhodesia did so individually. Rousseaus exploit turned into the Failure Drill and was included in the Academys curriculum starting in the late 1970s. [23], The expansion of the security forces, increasing battle casualties and a decline in the white population due to high rates of emigration led to serious shortages of white personnel that greatly hindered the Rhodesian war effort. Modern zombie culture has also appropriated the Mozambique Drill. [22][24], Another strategy used to address white manpower shortages was seeking white volunteers from outside the country, which the Rhodesian government began doing in 1973. The most common motivation was opposition to governments led by black people, but other volunteers were motivated by anti-communism or a desire for adventure. The scope of these sanctions was increased over time, and included restrictions on support for its military. Mike Rousseau was friends with Colonel Jeff Cooper, a legend in the firearms training world and the founder of Gunsite Academy. 2003) (Kozinski, J. [82] British citizens were prohibited from joining the Rhodesian Security Forces under the terms of an embargo enacted in 1968, with those who did so potentially facing fines or imprisonment. Rousseau immediately performed a double tap two shots to the center of the torso. |-- The DU Lounge Sometimes in practice, I will draw my weapon and shoot one shot to the chest . [13], Guerrilla activities began in 1966, and mainly involved small groups operating in northern Rhodesia. My Forums, Powered by DCForum+ Version 1.1 Copyright 1997-2002 Ideally, a more practical application might be to fire two shots to the torso, take two steps back and to the side to keep your distance and, if your attacker is still attacking, attempt the head shot. [39][40][41] Sources differ on whether these men were paratroopers or members of the French Foreign Legion. Many could well have been avoided or mitigated, had the perpetrators known their intended victims were equipped with a rifle and twenty bullets apiece, as the Militia Act required here. [56] The desertion rate among foreigners serving in the SAS was particularly high. Col. Jeff Cooper - A shooting legend and the man who codified the drill. A British deserter from the Rhodesian military claimed in 1976 that 2,000 of the 6,000 regular soldiers in the Rhodesian Army were British and another 100 Americans. [70], Ware and Campbell wrote in 2022 that the foreign volunteers had little influence on the war, and the pressure from western governments on the Rhodesian government to agree to a transition to majority rule was of greater importance. If I were to guess, I would say Rousseaus ammo was a 115-grain with a muzzle velocity of 1,200 fps. The views [41][42] The CIO regarded this as a success, but all other elements of the Rhodesian government were sceptical. Successful applicants were then offered a rank in the security forces. [98], The ZANU won the February 1980 Southern Rhodesian general election. Big Forums We must protect our Second Amendment and we must spread the word that Jews support the right to bear arms. Rousseau had a pistol. |-- Ask the Administrators This little rhyme, refers to the Mozambique Drill. While engaged in fighting at the airport of Loureno Marques (modern-day Maputo), Rousseau was armed with only a Browning HP35 pistol. Silveira v. Lockyer, 2003. List of battleships of the United States Navy, List of aircraft of the Malaysian Armed Forces,, Handgun Wounding Factors and Effectiveness, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, USMC manual CMC-37R of 8 Feb 2006: METHOD OF TARGET ENGAGEMENTS. However, the guerilla soldier kept coming, with two bleeding wounds to the torso, and still armed with his rifle. [7] Britain and the United Nations Security Council imposed wide-ranging trade and other sanctions on Rhodesia with the objective of forcing it to return to its previous status. He serves as contributing editor for several magazines, including NRAs American Rieman and Shooting Illustrated, Varmint Hunter, and Combat Handgunner, and is the editor for Gun Digests Cartridges of the World 13th Edition. Sorry, an error occurred and we could not sign you up. [86] The United States government did little to slow the flow of volunteers to Rhodesia. Habah l'hargecha hashkem l'hargo -- "If someone is coming to kill you, rise against him and kill him first.". These articles frequently highlighted the experiences of Americans who were fighting in Rhodesia. [105], Modern white supremacist and far-right groups continue to provide a positive portrayal of white rule in Rhodesia. Copyright 2023 Jews Can Shoot. Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, England and Portugal thought they had free rein over Africa. Rousseau immediately brought up his Browning . No matter the reason, the third shot should stop the attacker in his tracks. White notes that this was "not because of how they were paid for fighting but because of why they were fighting", with it being argued that the volunteers had involved themselves in a war that was not theirs. It is not the only way to do things, and was never intended to be taken as the one true way.. As he turned a corner, he bumped into a FRELIMO guerrilla armed with an AK-47. The Mozambique Drill,[1] also known as the Failure Drill, or Failure to Stop drill and, informally, as "two to the body, one to the head,"[2][3] is a close-quarters shooting technique that requires the shooter to fire twice into the torso of a target (known as a double tap or hammered pair to the center of mass), and follow up with a more difficult head shot that, if properly placed, will instantaneously stop the target if the previous shots failed to do so. With small arms, mortars, and artillery of predominantly Russian and Chinese origin, guerrilla fighters in places like the Congo and Mozambique engaged in pitiless unconventional warfare that saw widespread atrocities. [72], The Rhodesian Army regarded the volunteers as disloyal and undisciplined. I prefer the original name, but whats in a name? Body armor, extra thick clothing, psychoactive drugs, or even a massive adrenaline dump are all reasons those first two shots may not be effective on your target. Miss the zone, and the projectile could deflect off the bony areas of the skull without eliminating the threat. Forum Categories Center mass shots are easier to make quickly. The need for non-Rhodesians to sustain the country's independence was also considered problematic. Thats why practicing the Mozambique Drill is so important. Thank you for your support. [42] Small numbers of black ex-Flechas from Mozambique were also accepted after the end of Portuguese rule in that country; they were paid less than white soldiers. The Guardian reported in 1979 that "his presence is a source of embarrassment to the regime which has always insisted that it does not want foreign mercenaries". All Rights Reserved. [16] The academic Kyle Burke has written that some anti-government paramilitary forces in the United States draw inspiration from the volunteers, and cite them as an example when encouraging violence against African Americans. [58], Foreign volunteers who were accepted were required to swear an oath of loyalty to Rhodesia, and the Rhodesian government considered them to be members of the security forces rather than mercenaries. Manage all your favorite fandoms in one place! [47], All foreign volunteers were required to complete basic training upon arrival in Rhodesia, even if they had prior military experience. | Discussion This proved impossible due to the large numbers and difficulty of checking their backgrounds. Proper tactics can vary greatly depending on the circumstances and situation. Those who did so received amnesties as part of the British government measures associated to end of the conflict. Heads bob around erratically and the effective zone is relatively small. ), Shoulder Holster: 8 Pro Up-Top Carry Options (2023). Therefore, the more difficult head shot should be used as a follow up to your double tap. These letters were closely scrutinised, as many of the men who had written them were considered "obviously nuts" by the Rhodesian Army's recruitment officer Major Nick Lamprecht. [6], The Rhodesian Front's ideology held that the end of colonial rule in Africa and the development of African nationalism during the 1950s and 1960s had been the result of international communism aided by a policy of appeasement towards African nationalists by the United Kingdom and other western countries. At the start signal, draw your weapon and fire two shots to the chest (V1 zone), followed by one shot to the head (V2 zone). The more we all know, the better organized and stronger the shooting and hunting community will be. [34], American and Australian volunteers who had fought in the Vietnam War were generally well regarded by Rhodesian soldiers, and were often posted to the elite SAS and Selous Scouts. He offered Rhodesia the services of these men after they completed training, though he intended to eventually use them to retake Albania. The Rhodesians' brutal counterinsurgency tactics also proved counter-productive. [73] Foreign volunteers typically received a hostile reception from their Rhodesian comrades, which contributed to many leaving before the end of their contract. [79] Both the main nationalist groups believed that the volunteers' presence indicated that western governments supported the Rhodesian regime. The shots should be fired as fast as you are able, however they shouldnt be so fast that you miss your intended target. This drill was popularised by Rhodesian mercenary Mike Rousseau, during the Mozambican War of Independence, who was the inspiration for the character of Kuben Blisk. The historian Luise White noted in 2004 that "the figure most sources cite is 1,500 foreign soldiers, of whom perhaps 400 were American", though the Rhodesian Army put the number at 1,000 including 100 Americans. The term refers to his encounter with an AK-47 armed guerilla at an airport in Mozambique where he was armed with a Browning Hi-Power. So how does a Rhodesian mercenary figure into the story? Today, most instructors teach their students to hold the pistol on target after the first two shots. (snip) Rousseau related the story to an acquaintance, small arms expert Jeff Cooper, founder of the Gunsite Academy shooting school, who incorporated the "Mozambique Drill" into his . While engaged in fighting at the airport of Loureno Marques (modern-day Maputo),. In the 1960s he coined the term hoplophobia, an irrational fear of weapons. Handgun Training for Personal Protection. FRELIMO attacked targets in typical guerrilla-style warfare and, like other small insurgent forces, they made full use of hit and run tactics, their knowledge of the terrain, and used the monsoon season to their advantage. [2] Rousseau was later killed in action in the Rhodesian War. Portugal had ruled Mozambique for . It is not known how many Vietnam veterans fought in Rhodesia. Engaged in a firefight at an airport in Lourenco Marques, Rousseau encountered a guerilla fighter armed with an AK-47. [40], Foreign volunteers for the Rhodesian Security Forces were generally motivated by personal political and ideological beliefs or a desire for adventure. 2023 Springfield Armory. The. This is a drill created during the Mozambique War of Independence, when a Rhodesian Mercenary (Mike Rousseau) had an up-close encounter with an opponent wielding an AK-47. [5], The Mozambique Drill is intended to ensure that the target is immediately stopped, by first placing two shots into the larger, easier-to-hit mass of the upper body, then, if the target is still active, following with a third, more precisely aimed and difficult head shot. [48] The British intelligence agencies also infiltrated agents into the Rhodesian Security Forces.[49]. The Mozambique drill is performed for both accuracy and time. For simple evaluation purposes, position a target with a V1 and V2 zone 5 yards to your front. here to send us a message. [2][3] Accordingly, the government issued Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) from the United Kingdom in November 1965, with the colony becoming Rhodesia. The Portuguese forces collaborated with Rhodesia which had experience from the Bush War in the early 1960s to create special forces teams to deal with FRELIMO. The Mozambique drill was made famous by Jeff Cooper after learning about this incident. Got a message for Democratic Underground? slams Colorado gun control bills, Biden's FAA Nominee Can't Answer a Single Question About Aviation, Russell Brand was challenged to give examples of MSNBC pushing misinformation (that was a BAD idea), Trump Reveals What He'll Do If He's Indicted, California - Do Not Sell My Personal Information. [89] This law can only be enforced within the United States, meaning that American citizens who enlisted to fight for Rhodesia while overseas could not be prosecuted. It kind of worked. Although two shots to the vitals of an attacker will stop a threat cold in most situations, it doesnt work 100 percent of the time. : The British Military Advisory and Training Team and the Creation of the Zimbabwe National Army",, The historians Peter Godwin and Ian Hancock have written that foreign volunteers represented only a "tiny minority" of the Rhodesian military in 1972, with 90 per cent of recruits being Rhodesians and most of the remainder. [28] This magazine had been established that year to promote mercenary opportunities, and provided a positive portrayal of the lifestyle available to mercenaries. [16], The Rhodesian Security Forces were considerably expanded over the war. The Mozambique Drill brings together low-round count that challenges a shooter's speed, accuracy, and fundamentals. Named for Mike Rousseau, an associate of Jeff Cooper, who, ironically, died during the war in Rhodesia. The French troops were being withdrawn from Djibouti upon that country's independence, and French intelligence agents helped facilitate their recruitment by the Rhodesian Army. A quick how-to on shooting the Mozambique Drill. The articles in Soldier of Fortune reflected Rhodesian government propaganda, as they claimed that the country was a western democracy, the war was being fought against communism and did not discuss the oppression of Rhodesia's black majority. Jeff Cooper created The Modern Technique of the Pistol and the Combat Mindset. [60] Foreign volunteers who openly expressed extreme racial views were deported. Rousseau told his harrowing story to Jeff Cooper, who thought that it made a darn good defensive shooting drill. Heres the connection. [47], The Rhodesian Special Branch sought to vet all of the foreign volunteers for security risks. It was also unclear whether serving in the Rhodesian military was illegal under laws that prohibited service in foreign militaries as the British did not recognise Rhodesia's independence. According to the anecdotal history, the technique originated with a Rhodesian mercenary, Mike Rousseau, engaged in the Mozambican War of Independence (1964-1974). Those who were combat veterans resented being placed under the command of younger and less experienced Rhodesians. While engaged in fighting at the airport of Loureno Marques (modern-day Maputo), Rousseau was armed with only a Browning HP35 pistol. European colonial powers like Belgium and Portugal fought to defend their interests, but the rebels had little to lose and everything to gain. [14] Rhodesia's security situation deteriorated during the mid-1970s when the nationalists were able to establish bases in Mozambique as Portuguese rule faltered and finally ended in 1975. Rousseau relayed this story to Jeff Cooper, who then began employing this failure to stop drill in his teaching at Gunsite. Rousseau related the story to an acquaintance, small arms expert Jeff Cooper, founder of the Gunsite Academy shooting school, who incorporated the "Mozambique Drill" into his modern technique shooting method. While engaged in fighting at the airport of Lourenco Marques (modern-day Maputo), Rousseau was armed with only a Browning HP35 pistol. FRELIMO's Marxist underpinnings earned it support from Russia and China. [23] Other volunteers were posted to a range of units, including protection companies mainly made up of black soldiers and the largely white Grey's Scouts and Rhodesian Armoured Corps. opinions of the individuals who post them, and do not necessarily represent Two American ex-Marine deserters from the Forces who robbed jewelry stores in Salisbury, while carrying stolen Uzis, were involved in a shoot-out with authorities at the South African border. [15], Foreigners with far right beliefs were often sympathetic to the Rhodesian cause during the war. Portugal had ruled Mozambique for four hundred years, had subsequent deep roots in the country, and was not leaving without a fight. Not exactly a headshot, but the situation was terminated. At the time of UDI, the Rhodesian Army had a strength of over 18,400, including 15,000 reservists, the Rhodesian Air Force had a small but modern fleet of combat aircraft and the paramilitary British South Africa Police included 7,000 full time and 25,000 reserve personnel. It doesnt matter how fast you can pull off rounds if they dont hit your target. [84] The FCO advised anyone who sought information about fighting for Rhodesia that doing so was illegal, but did not explain why. [66], Under the terms of the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement that ended the war the British government resumed control over Rhodesia in December 1979, with the country temporarily reverting to the colony of Southern Rhodesia until elections could be held. There arent a lot of guarantees in a gunfight, but the Failure Drill just might be your best defense in time of need, particularly if you are facing an opponent wearing body armor. This led to a rapid growth in the insurgency which the security forces were unable to contain. Save my name and email to use for future comments. 2001 - 2011 Democratic Underground, The Portuguese used WWII vintage pistols in their two decades long colonial wars in Angola and Mozambique (some claim the gun Rhodesian mercenary Mike Rousseau used in the original Mozambique . A par time for this drill should be four seconds. [8] The academic Michael Evans has written that "the Fronts world-struggle ideology was based on a conspiratorial interpretation of modern politics that emphasised virulent forms of Anglophobia, anti-communism, anti-internationalism, and anti-liberalism". Sundry populist uprisings supported by distant communist benefactors strived to nip at the forces and institutions of the European colonial powers long enough to draw blood. The so-called Mozambique Drill (two shots to the chest, one to the head) was actually developed by accident by Rhodesian mercenary Mike Rousseau during the War of Independence in Mozambique when two pistol shots to the torso failed to bring down an enemy guerrilla. [17] The Army's structure of administrative corps was similar to that of the British Army, and many of its officers had undergone training in the United Kingdom. Mike Rousseau was a white Rhodesian mercenary engaged in combat against FRELIMO guerillas in and around the Mozambique capital of Maputo. a close quarter tactical method of killing a target with two shots to the chest and one follow up shot to the head. [36][74] These volunteers may have further encouraged the Rhodesian Security Forces use of the 'body count' of guerrillas killed as a measure of success, with this having been a key metric in Vietnam. To guarantee instant incapacitation by impacting the brain and central nervous system, the head shot must be delivered to the area between eyebrows and upper lip, otherwise, various bony areas of the skull could deflect the bullet. How rude! Position a silhouette target (preferably with outlined V1 and V2 zones) five yards from the firing line. These organisations provided recruits for the security forces as well as private industry, including farms, mines and timber companies. [62][76], The nationalist groups that were fighting the Rhodesian regime and many progressive groups worldwide considered the volunteers to be mercenaries. FRELIMO was the dominant political party in Mozambique fighting for independence from Portugal. Then, they can make a smooth transition to the third V2 shot if it is necessary. Rousseau was later killed in action in the Rhodesian War. The Mozambique drill was made famous by Jeff Cooper after learning about this incident. The party was deeply committed to maintaining the white minority's status, with this motivating a decision to declare independence from the United Kingdom rather than submit to a transition to majority rule. By 1979 the Rhodesian government was facing defeat and the war was costing 2,000 lives each month. [65] Most of the volunteers served under Rhodesian officers. The Rhodesian government did not formally reply. The Mozambique Drill is a close-quarter shooting technique in which the shooter fires twice into the torso of a target (known as a double tap to the center of mass), momentarily assesses the hits, then follows them up with a carefully aimed shot to the head of the target. [22] The number of white conscripts in the security forces was also increased by considerably expanding the age groups of men who were required to serve and the periods of active duty reservists needed to undertake. While engaged in fighting at the airport of Loureno Marques (modern-day Maputo), Rousseau was armed with only a Browning HP35 pistol. However, since you wont have time to interview your attacker in the heat of the moment, the specific cause of the failure isnt important. [87] The historian Hugh Patterson noted that the relatively small numbers of volunteers from the UK indicates that "however vocal the support for Rhodesia by some on the political right, very few men were actually willing to put their futures on the line for the Smith [Rhodesian prime minister Ian Smith] regime". According to anecdotal history, the technique originated with a Rhodesian mercenary, Mike Rousseau, engaged in the Mozambican War of Independence (1964-1974). Copyright 2023 All Rights Reserved. It may be ironic that the Mozambique Drill is a technique used with a Rhodesian mercenary, Mike Rousseau, during the Mozambican War of Independence from 1964 to 1974. Soldier of Fortune ran large numbers of articles on foreigners in the Rhodesian Security Forces during the Bush War; each edition published between 1975 and 1980 included at least one article on the subject. Volume 9: EDC Digital Magazine. In many countries it was illegal to serve with the Rhodesian Security Forces. Rumored to have begun with Rhodesian mercenary Mike Rousseau and adopted into coursework at Gunsight Academy, the Mozambique Drill is intended to drop an advancing threat immediately. However, for reasons lost to history Rousseau was reduced to his sidearm, a GP35 Browning Hi-Power in 9mm. If a few hundred Jewish fighter in the Warsaw Ghetto could hold off the Wehrmacht for almost a month with only a handful weapons, six million Jews armed with rifles could not so easily have been herded into cattle cars. The reality of the war confronted Rousseau at the airport in Loureno Marques, which has been called Maputo since 1976. He told Cooper the story, and Cooper began to teach what he called the "Mozambique Drill" at Gunsite. All other white military personnel, other than members of the Selous Scouts unit that had a reputation for atrocities, were given an assurance that they would not be required to leave the military. [1] From 1962 its government was led by the Rhodesian Front political party. Software has been extensively modified by the DU administrators. I imagine Rousseau had a moment of shock and then quickly decided to end it with a headshot. Home However, this drill is mostly concerned with improving your shooting skills rather than learning the nuances of self-defense tactics. [94], Many of the foreign volunteers opposed the March 1978 Internal Settlement, under which the white Rhodesian government agreed to cede power to moderate black leaders. One such soldier of fortune was Mike Rousseau. Armed with a Browning HP35 pistol chambered in 9mm, Rousseau immediately brought up his Hi Power and shot the guerrilla twice in the chest. Get the 76th edition of the World's Greatest Gun Book. Portugal had ruled Mozambique for . The drill is also sometimes called the Failure Drill, as the third and final shot is made in response to a situation when the double tap fails to stop an advancing threat. [71] There were concerns that many of the volunteers were motivated more by a desire to fight in a war than a commitment to Rhodesia. Robert A. Sadowski has written about firearms and hunting for more than fifteen years. [50] The high proportion of white Rhodesians who were born outside the country or held citizenship of another country also complicates the matter. In 1976 former Portuguese officials offered 2,000 white soldiers who had served with the UNITA nationalist movement in Angola until that country's independence. That was in the 1400s and 1500s when Portugal set up trading settlements that evolved into colonies. [96][97] In January 1980 the British Lord Privy Seal, Ian Gilmour, stated that the British government had committed during the negotiations that led to the Lancaster House Agreement to not remove foreigners from the Rhodesian military prior to the election.
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